Using SharePoint online modern pages, when you try to add Highlighted Content web part and try to filter the content by column values or page properties, it does not show you filter option to choose "Page properties" and further not allow you to choose any columns. This is not an issue but you need to choose the different source under "Content" section.
Please follow below steps:
1. Add Highlighted Content web part on modern SharePoint page.
2. Go to web part properties
3. Under section "Content", choose "The page library on this site"
4. Under section "Filter and sort", choose filter "Page Properties"
5. Now you can see option to select property name and text box to add the values.
For more help and information about Highlighted content web part you can also visit : https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/use-the-highlighted-content-web-part-e34199b0-ff1a-47fb-8f4d-dbcaed329efd